Cannabis Health“Light Tasting” Canna-Butter by ‘JeffThe420Chef’First Ever THC/CBD Calculator Created for Cannabis Culinary UseBusiness is booming at the ‘Harvard of Pot’ in CaliforniaIs CBD from Cannabis the Same as CBD from Cannabis? Settling the DebateDo Cannabinoid-Mimicking Compounds Affect the Endocannabinoid System as Well as Cannabis?To Dab or Not to Dab…Support Cannabis for Vets with PTSDDoes Use of CBD-Hemp Oil Result in a Positive Drug Test for THC or Cannabis?Can Cannabinoids Positively Impact Your Body’s Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Health?CNN’s Report: ‘ Study Findings’ are another form of ‘Reefer Madness’
https://cannabishealth.com The Health & Science of Cannabis. Wed, 16 Dec 2015 16:00:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.4 https://cannabishealth.com/2191-2/ https://cannabishealth.com/2191-2/#respond Wed, 16 Dec 2015 15:22:03 +0000
IMPORTANT! Make sure you know the percentage of THC and/or CBD per gram in the flower or bud you are using. You will need this information to properly measure and dose your servings*. *Please refer to my THC/CBD Calculator to help you estimate the number of milligrams of THC and/or CBD in
My “light tasting” canna-butter is the basis of many of my guests’ favorite dishes. This is more of a bright yellow ghee (clarified butter) with a hint of green, and it’s perfect for baking and cooking light and healthy dishes with cannabis. It is also the base ingredient for my “Light Tasting”edibles.
IMPORTANT! Make sure you know the percentage of THC and/or CBD per gram in the flower or bud you are using. You will need this information to properly measure and dose your servings*. *Please refer to my THC/CBD Calculator to help you estimate the number of milligrams of THC and/or CBD in your recipe.
Number of servings: (8) 1 Tbsp. servings (1 stick of canna-butter) Preparation Time: 1 hour and 5 minutes Cooking Time: 4 hours Idle Time: overnight to 12 hours
1 1/3 stick (grass fed) butter (10½Tablespoons). Salted or Unsalted. (My favorite brand is Kerrygoldtm)
1/4 oz (7 gms) Cannabis flower
STEP 1 – Soak, Blanch and Rinse Herb
Coarsely grind dry herb (also known as flower or bud) and soak in Distilled Water for 24 hours. Change the water halfway through. This cleans out a lot of the impurities that cause bad taste.
The next day, place “cleaned” herb in a tea strainer
Bring water to a boil
Place tea strainer in boiling water for 5 mins
Immediately remove tea strainer after 5 mins then place in ice water for 1 minute
Remove from Ice water and pour distilled water over the tea strainer to rinse out any residual impurities
Remove herb from strainer and wring out excess water
THC and CBD are not active in raw cannabis. THC comes from tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and CBD comes from cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). These two acids are the precursors to THC and CBD, found in raw, live cannabis, but neither has any psychoactive properties on their own.
Both THC and CBD need to be “activated” through a process called “decarbing” (decarboxylation) before their effects can be felt. Essentially, decarbing means removing the acid or “A” molecule from the THC and CBD, which happens by releasing a carbon atom from a carbon chain. This can only be done through heat and time.
When you smoke cannabis, you decarb the bud via heat before it goes into your lungs. But in order to cook with cannabis, you need to “activate” the THC and CBD by decarbing your bud before you can infuse it into your food.
STEP 2 – Dry and Decarb (This is an overnight process)
Spread blanched and squeezed cannabis evenly in a large baking pan and lay a large piece of aluminum foil on top of it (don’t crimp it down to close). Let it sit overnight. Your cannabis should be dry by the next morning. (you can skip this step if you use a dehydrator)
Preheat oven to 300ºF (1500C)
When dry, crimp down foil and “bake” for 20 mins. This is how you decarb your cannabis.
Remove from oven. Let sit for 5 minutes so THC or CBD vapors can settle back onto the herb.
Remove foil and loosely cover with a couple paper towels. This creates a dark environment with airflow.
Let pan sit, covered with paper towels on the counter overnight.
* Weigh the next morning before you infuse so you know the amount of cannabis you used to infuse your butter.
*Your FINAL yield will weigh +/- 20-40% LESS than your starting weight depending on how moist or dry your cannabis was when you started the process
STEP 3 – Infuse Butter
Melt butter in French Press placed standing up in pot of simmering water
Mix decarbed cannabis into melted butter and cover French press. Press plunger to just above butter. This is now your water line.
Ensure that simmering water is always at or just above your water line.
Gently simmer for 4 hours. Check water level every 20 mins to insure the water level is even with or slightly higher than water line.
After 4 hours, remove from pot, plunge French press all the way and strain ghee into butter container
Refrigerate to re-solidify.
Remove solidified butter from refrigerator and separate from butter dish onto a paper towel. This will remove any residual water that accumulated from the process.
Dry carefully by blotting your butter with a paper towel to remove as much moisture as possible.
https://cannabishealth.com/2191-2/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/2177-2/ https://cannabishealth.com/2177-2/#respond Thu, 10 Dec 2015 20:01:01 +0000
feature image courtesy Jeffthe420chef via Newswiretm Press Release JeffThe420Chef has teamed up with Medspoon and CW Analytical to create the first ever THC/CBD Calculator. The calculator uses a simple interface allowing any aspiring cannabis cook to better approximate dose per serving, while only requiring a few key inputs. Starting today, the calculator,
JeffThe420Chef has teamed up with Medspoon and CW Analytical to create the first ever THC/CBD Calculator. The calculator uses a simple interface allowing any aspiring cannabis cook to better approximate dose per serving, while only requiring a few key inputs. Starting today, the calculator, now in Beta mode, is available exclusively on JeffThe420Chef.com. The calculator is slated for release as an app for iPhone, iPad and Android in early 2016.
Financed in part by MedSpoon.com and CW Analytical, the THC/CBD Calculator was created by JeffThe420Chef and app developer, Dan Nascimbeni, a former culinary student of JeffThe420Chef who has been bringing technical solutions to the financial, , andecommerce industries for over a decade. The calculator, built around JeffThe420Chef’s proprietary dosing formula, is designed to help anyone cooking or baking with cannabis figure out approximately how many milligrams of THC and/or CBD are in their edibles.
“MedSpoon.com is happy to have teamed up with Jeffthe420Chef to address a major issue in cannabis cooking, dosage. By creating this lab tested THC calculator, any aspiring cannabis cook can better understand the dosage of their infused-food while encouraging best practice in extraction and infusion.”
VICTOR CLOUD, CEO/FOUNDER, MEDSPOON.COM
“Cooking and baking with cannabis is a science as much as it is an art, and it’s imperative that folks understand the potency of their edibles in order to insure an enjoyable experience for everyone”, says JeffThe420Chef. “We are excited to offer this very important tool to help folks quickly figure out how potent their home made edibles are”. For the most accurate results, JeffThe420Chef suggests that cooks follow his process for making “light tasting”cannabutter and cannaoil which can be found on his website, JeffThe420Chef.com.
“Medspoon.com is happy to have teamed up with Jeffthe420Chef to address a major issue in cannabis cooking, dosage”, states Victor Cloud, CEO and Founder at Medspoon, “by creating this lab tested THC calculator, any aspiring cannabis cook can better understand the dosage of their infused-food while encouraging best practice in extraction and infusion.”
Emily Richardson, director at CW Analytical says “CW Analytical strongly believes that patients deserve the freedom to produce their own cannabis-based medicine. At the same time, it is vital that patients and their health providers have access to potency data needed for proper dosing. Tools like this calculator give patients a road map, allowing them to more easily create and effectively manage homemade cannabis medicines.”
Dubbed “The Julia Child of Weed” by The Daily Beast, “The GanjaGourmet” by Newsweek and “The King of Edibles” by Elite Daily, JeffThe420Chef is a private chef who has been cooking and baking with cannabis since 2007. In 2014, he invented a method which effectively neutralizes the “cannabis” taste in his butters and oils. Known for his “tasteless” and “light tasting” cannabis infused gourmet meals and edibles, JeffThe420Chef and his recipes have been featured on television, radio and on numerous websites and blogs. His upcoming cookbook, The Ganja Gourmet: The Joy of Cooking with Cannabis (Harper Wave) will hit bookstores June 28th.
MedSpoon.com is a community of cannabis cooking enthusiasts. Our education-focused site teaches people the basics of cannabis cooking, inspires with clever cannabis-infused creations, and encourages community members to share their own incredible edibles.
About CW Analytical:
CW Analytical was founded in 2009, and our mission is to assist cultivators, edible/ concentrate producers, and dispensaries in producing safe, clean medicine for patients in California. Through education, community outreach, and quality assurance testing, we are proud to help make a difference in our Cannabis community.
https://cannabishealth.com/2177-2/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/business-is-booming-at-the-harvard-of-pot-in-california/ https://cannabishealth.com/business-is-booming-at-the-harvard-of-pot-in-california/#respond Fri, 04 Dec 2015 19:39:17 +0000
This article appears courtesy of Sara Solovitch of The Washington Post with additional consideration by Oaksterdam University. Matt Lanke from Mississippi and Jean Kennedy look over homework before class at Oaksterdam University. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post) Jean Kennedy has a BS in biology and a master’s in special education. Now,
Matt Lanke from Mississippi and Jean Kennedy look over homework before class at Oaksterdam University. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
Jean Kennedy has a BS in biology and a master’s in special education. Now, she’s trying to decide what to do with her third degree: a certificate of achievement from Oaksterdam University, the Harvard Business School of .
“I’m Italian,” said Kennedy, 56, a retired high school biology teacher with graying hair and a heavy New York accent. “You know Italians, we grow tomatoes. Maybe I’ll grow some plants.”
Horticulture 102 is one of the many subjects Kennedy studies at Oaksterdam, whose storefront campus is set amid the hip cafes, restaurants and cannabis dispensaries of downtown Oakland. Founded in 2007, the school sees itself as a training ground for citizen advocates in the fight to legalize .
A grow tent has different strains of cannabis plants used for demonstration purposes. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
Oaksterdam is rebounding after a 2012 raid by the federal government, which deems a Schedule 1 illegal drug, the same category as heroin. Federal agents, many of them masked and armed, broke down the doors of the school with battering rams and sledgehammers, carting away an estimated 60,000 cannabis plants and scattering the school’s terrified faculty and students.
The university was devastated by the raid, which Oaksterdam founder Richard Lee dismissed as a “last-ditch effort” by federal authorities to enforce laws that were out of step with the times. was approved by California voters in 1996. In the years since the raid, four states and the District of Columbia have legalized pot, making a legitimate business in parts of America, worth an estimated $3.5 billion a year.
Still, as Oaksterdam preaches the gospel of pot entrepreneurism, its history offers a lesson in harsh reality. Robert Raich, a lawyer who has twice argued legalization cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, makes that lesson explicit in Cannabusiness 102, where he warns students of the risk inherent in cultivating a Schedule 1 drug.
“Until the federal government changes the Controlled Substances Act,” Raich said, “I teach how to create defenses against possible hostile action by the government.”
Business at Oaksterdam is booming despite that risk. Today, the school employs 20 staff members and 150 instructors, including some of the biggest stars in the cannabis universe. Debby Goldsberry co-founded the Berkeley Patients Group cannabis collective, and Ed Rosenthal is often cited as the world’s leading authority on cultivation. The Oakland lecture hall holds 50 students and every seat is paid for.
The school is also branching out to satellite locations. There is a new campus in the works in Las Vegas, where two four-day seminars sold out this year, with 250 students paying as much as $995 apiece.
Last month, the school conducted a conference in Orlando, where about 300 doctors and nurses earned continuing education credits after learning to use cannabis to treat an array of conditions, including glaucoma and glioblastoma.
And the school routinely advises politicians from places including California and Jamaica on topics such as how to appraise applications for and dispensary licenses, and how to promote research and development.
Debby Goldsberry, co-founder of the Berkeley Patients Group cannabis collective, leads a class on procurement and allocation at Oaksterdam. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
At the main campus, the walls display photos of the school’s 23,000 graduates, who range in age from 18 to 65 and represent every state and 30 countries. Last month, about 30 California lawmakers drove from Sacramento for lectures on taxation and regulation, studying up for the possible passage next fall of an initiative that would legalize for recreational use.
Aseem Sappal, the school’s provost and dean, said he wants to build Oaksterdam’s credibility as a serious institution of higher learning.
“We have high school grads sitting next to oncologists and city council members. We have senators, governors, former congressmen — this is who we’re working with,” Sappal said. “We have skepticism because it’s a big joke, people just smoking pot. But the country is moving in this direction for a reason.”
Provost Aseem Sappal, left, works with Derek Stephanoff and Executive Chancellor Dale Sky Jones. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
As the legalization movement grows, Oaksterdam is even attracting students who say they have never smoked pot. One is Kennedy, the retired biology teacher, whose primary interest is in the plant’s medicinal benefits.
“My own sister thinks I’ve lost my mind,” she said. “But these are not crazy people. These are not potheads. When you come here, you see it: These are businesspeople.”
Kennedy is enrolled in the Classic Semester — 35 credit hours of basic and advanced classes during which an instructor lectures on the history and politics of cannabis, the plant’s nutritional and water requirements, its benefits, culinary delights and methods of ingestion. (A Classic Semester lasts 14 weeks and costs about $1,200.)
There are also classes on economics, business management, legal rights and cannabusiness. One of the messages implicit in an Oaksterdam education is that there is a lot of money waiting to be made.
“But it has to be done in a responsible, politically astute way,” stressed Chris Conrad, who lectures on cannabis history and politics. He is the author of several books on cannabis and hemp, and he has testified as an expert witness on the subjects in hundreds of state, federal and military trials.
“Oaksterdam has helped people understand that cannabis is just another business,” he said. “They don’t let you sell a hamburger without a license, and they won’t let you sell without a license.”
That makes sense to Chris Bergan, 22. About a year ago, Bergan dropped out of West Chester University in West Chester, Pa., to go into delivery.
“Business took off, and I started making way more than I would ever have with my English degree,” said Bergan, who runs his business entirely on his iPhone.
Chris Bergan looks at his class photo with Aubrey Lewis and Michael Perman. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
Oaksterdam offers a superior education as well, Bergan said.
“Over the last month, I’ve learned more about something I’ve been consuming since I was 14 than in all the years in between. It’s an incredible education. Did you know that there are 22,000 peer-reviewed studies on in the literature? I had no idea.”
The business potential of pot looms large at Oaksterdam. Australia is on the verge of approving . Canada is expected to legalize recreational use for adults. And a new study by CBRE Research, a commercial real-estate research company, shows that pot has powered the Denver real-estate market since Colorado legalized last year: More than a third of industrial space leased in the city is now used for cultivation.
Bergan says he hardly knows which prospects to pursue first. Whatever he decides, Oaksterdam says it is there to help.
“You have no idea how many people come here and end up going into partnership with someone they meet,” Sappal said. “If there’s a student in a class of 50 who’s an electrician, that’s a tremendous opportunity for networking. Because when you have an indoor grow, who’s going to set it up? You want someone who’s friendly.”
When Lee founded Oaksterdam in 2007, there was no place like it in America. A paraplegic who smoked pot to prevent leg spasms, Lee was a strong advocate for legalizing, regulating and taxing .
Edible candy bars have the face of Oaksterdam University founder Richard Lee. (Peter DaSilva/For The Washington Post)
Then he went to Amsterdam, where he noticed “a teaching thing called Cannabis College, a little cultivation place next to one of the seed companies.” Back in Oakland, he placed a classified ad in the back of an alternative newspaper and, “as soon as the paper hit the racks, the phone started ringing.”
Thus, Oaksterdam — an amalgam of Oakland and Amsterdam — was born.
The school quickly grew to include 100 instructors on a 30,000-square-foot campus. But it also became a federal target. To save Oaksterdam — and himself — Lee cut off all involvement with the school and its related businesses, which include a dispensary and a plant nursery.
Although Oaksterdam never closed, it lost its lease and was forced to relocate from its old three-story building to a much smaller storefront. Its staff shrank overnight from 53 to three.
Ultimately, no charges were filed against Lee or the university. These days, he mostly works alongside his mother, Ann Lee, who in 2012 founded Republicans Against Prohibition.
And the school is so much a part of local politics that Oakland Mayor Libby Schaaf (D) held a fundraiser at Oaksterdam a few weeks before her election last year. Meanwhile, students are once again pouring in from all across the nation.
On a recent morning, instructor John Geluardi addressed 42 students in a lecture hall crowded with grow tents packed with pungent plants under full-spectrum lights. When Geluardi asked how many people were from California, three students raised their hands.
But those riches will be harder to realize until Congress changes the Controlled Substances Act, Geluardi said.
“Federal law makes it very difficult to do business. If you’re running a cannabis dispensary, you’re always on tenterhooks,” he told his students.
“Becoming a white market economy,” he said, would be “cannabis heaven.”
Solovitch is a freelance writer.
Correction: A previous version of this article incorrectly identified cocaine as a Schedule 1 drug, along with heroin and . Cocaine is listed under the federal Controlled Substances Act as a less-dangerous Schedule 2 drug. The story also overstated the number of industrial leases in Denver dedicated to cultivation. Between 2009 and 2014, a third of new industrial leases were devoted to that purpose.
You may go ahead and re-read that title now. While it may seem like an obvious response or even rhetorical question to ask, this question has been popping up on forums, in dispensaries and independent, specialty natural products stores, within the Cannabis industry and various media platforms. We felt it
Hemp vs. Cannabis-derived CBD is not as complex as you might think….
You may go ahead and re-read that title now.While it may seem like an obvious response or even rhetorical question to ask, this question has been popping up on forums, in dispensaries and independent, specialty natural products stores, within the Cannabis industry and various media platforms. We felt it was time to dive in and settle any debate to clear the water.
The root of this debate is whether CBD (cannabidiol) sourced from low THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/ high CBD strains of Cannabis (typically referred to as industrial Hemp at less than 0.3% THC concentration in aerial parts of the plant) would somehow be considered different or ineffective compared to CBD sourced from higher THC/ low CBD strains of Cannabis (i.e., ). If you’re following the Cannabis discussion nationwide and globally, or if you’re an avid Cannabis Health reader, there is no doubt you’ve heard of CBD—the “other” major, fascinating cannabinoid that has been heralded to possess noneuphoric, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, metabolic health and neuroprotective benefits, amongst others. This is in contrast to the physiologic action of THC, and other cannabinoids. However, there are over 90 other cannabinoid compounds that have been characterized in Cannabis, the majority of which have yet to be studied more extensively in biological systems.
For those readers who have shunned organic chemistry with extreme aversion…first, you’re not alone! Next, let us be clear that the laws of physics, chemistry, physical chemistry and biochemistry remain the same whether the molecule is synthesized within and sourced from a Cannabis (Hemp) plant, or a Cannabis () plant. A molecule of any compound is composed of a specific arrangement and configuration of atoms, with a specific bonding pattern. The strain of Cannabis plant, regardless of its percentage or ratio of CBD/THC, does NOT change these fundamental truths. As such, when it is administered the human body does not recognize that the CBD compound was somehow sourced from vs. Hemp, and certainly all the biologic activity, interactions with various enzymes and receptors specific to CBD also remains the same. The human physiology does not make a conscious decision to treat CBD differently because it was sourced from whole-plant hemp material vs. whole-plant material.
CBD is CBD, whether from Cannabis or “Cannabis.” Any argument against it is simply both a logical and scientific fallacy.
CBD-rich strains of Cannabis that categorizes the plant as Hemp vs. (or simply Cannabis that contains greater than 0.3% in THC) are driven by the expression of genotypes that direct their phenotypic characteristics. The genotypes of various Cannabis strains dictate the biosynthetic pathways that result in different phenotypes and variations in cannabinoid, terpene, stilbene and flavonoid profiles or “fingerprints.” However, assessing the different structure/function relationships of plants with different cannabinoid and flavonoid profiles is an entirely different question than whether the CBD from these distinct strains are inherently different.
We can draw an analogy from the dietary supplement/ nutraceutical space regarding DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid), the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oil. Interestingly, the dietary sources of DHA are broad and varied, from fatty cold-water fish to purified fish oil (menhaden, salmon, mackerel, anchovies, etc.) to algae to krill, organ meats (e.g., liver) and even egg yolks. The argument being proposed by some in the established Cannabis industry would be akin to declaring that DHA from menhaden is somehow “different” or “superior” to the DHA from microalgae, or vice versa. Once again, the laws of chemistry demonstrates that DHA from microalgae is the same molecule as the DHA isolated from menhaden fish.
A similar analogy can be drawn with Vitamin C from oranges being “different” than that from grapefruits, or acerola cherries. Clearly, in any of these scenarios the DHA and Vitamin C retains its same chemical and biologic characteristics irrespective of the source.
The very same can be said about the CBD, CBC, CBG, THC or any other cannabinoid not being “different” despite being sourced from different strains of Cannabis.
We hope this has been edifying, and therefore you now understand that CBD is CBD, whether from Cannabis or “Cannabis.” Any argument against it is simply both a logical and scientific fallacy.
Peschel W, Politi M. ¹H NMR and HPLC/DAD for Cannabis sativa L. chemotype distinction, extract profiling and specification. Talanta. 2015 Aug 1;140:150-65.
Onofri C, de Meijer EP, Mandolino G. Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic-and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-synthase in Cannabis sativa L. and its relationship with chemical phenotype. Phytochemistry. 2015 Aug;116:57-68.
Hillig KW, Mahlberg PG. A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Am J Bot. 2004 Jun;91(6):966-75.
https://cannabishealth.com/is-cbd-from-cannabis-the-same-as-cbd-from-cannabis-settling-the-debate/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/do-cannabinoid-mimicking-compounds-affect-the-endocannabinoid-system-as-well-as-cannabis/ https://cannabishealth.com/do-cannabinoid-mimicking-compounds-affect-the-endocannabinoid-system-as-well-as-cannabis/#respond Thu, 19 Nov 2015 08:05:04 +0000
When reading up on cannabinoids, you may have come across some resources insinuating that some non-cannabis compounds work as well as the cannabinoids they emulate. Not so fast, friend! Today we’re going to dive into the compounds that mimic cannabinoids to see if and how they comparatively affect the endocannabinoid
Do some well-known natural compounds touted for good health positively affect the endocannabinoid system?
When reading up on cannabinoids, you may have come across some resources insinuating that some non-cannabis compounds work as well as the cannabinoids they emulate. Not so fast, friend! Today we’re going to dive into the compounds that mimic cannabinoids to see if and how they comparatively affect the endocannabinoid system, or ECS.
Why do these plant polyphenols affect the endocannabinoid system?
Do any of these rockstar compounds sound familiar?
It just so happens that in addition to having notable health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties, the above plant polyphenols are all thought to affect the ECS. But do they?
Indeed, researchers have demonstrated that under certain experimental conditions, the following can inhibit the enzymes that break down endocannabinoids, interact with cannabinoid receptors, and/or influence the availability of certain phospholipid precursors used to synthesize endocannabinoids (Gertsch et al. 2010):
However, while it’s tempting to claim that these effects on the ECS are directly responsible for the health benefits of these compounds, this conclusion is speculative and premature. In other words, let’s pump the brakes for a minute.
Are There Weight Loss Benefits in Polyphenols?
For example, an initial study reported that the polyphenols trans-resveratrol, curcumin, and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (found in varieties of tea leaves) were all able to bind (albeit weakly) to the human CB1 receptor (Seely et al. 2009). These compounds have also displayed substantial weight loss benefits in mice, similar to the effects of the CB1 receptor inverse agonist rimonabant. What does all that mean?
An inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but activates an opposing pharmacological response. Rimonabant is an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1, and its main effect is to reduce appetite. Just because a natural compound has “binding affinity” to CB1 or CB2 receptors does not necessarily mean that the binding is functionally or biologically relevant.
In other words, given what we know about the weight loss effects the three polyphenols appeared to have in mice, their weak interaction with CB receptors is unlikely to play a direct role. In fact, the binding affinities and downstream signaling appear to be very marginal at best.
What Does It All Mean?
A much more plausible explanation is that these compounds promote changes in insulin sensitivity/signaling, carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the liver and muscle, and even the microbiome (i.e., the organisms that reside in our gastrointestinal tract) that favor weight loss. That said, each of these physiologic mechanisms and pathways tend to overlap or crossover with many observed effects of the ECS (i.e., alterations in whole-body energy/calorie homeostasis, glucose/lipid metabolism, hunger/satiety).
At the end of the day, crossover, duplicitous action, or redundant phenotypic outcomes does not necessarily mean the same biochemical or molecular pathway is being used as the actual mechanism by which a compound “works its belly-bustin’ magic”…but it’s still fun to speculate!
Järbe TUC, LeMay BJ, Halikhedkar A, et al. Differentiation between low- and high-efficacy CB1 receptor agonists using a drug discrimination protocol for rats. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231(3):489-500.
Seely KA, Levi MS, Prather PL. (2009). The dietary polyphenols trans-resveratrol and curcumin selectively bind human CB1 cannabinoid receptors with nanomolar affinities and function as antagonists/inverse agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 330:S31–S39. Retraction In: Prather PL, Seely KA, Levi MS. Notice of retraction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Dec;331(3):1147.
Gertsch J et al. (2010). Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? British Journal of Pharmacology 160: 523–529.
https://cannabishealth.com/do-cannabinoid-mimicking-compounds-affect-the-endocannabinoid-system-as-well-as-cannabis/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/to-dab-or-not-to-dab/ https://cannabishealth.com/to-dab-or-not-to-dab/#respond Tue, 17 Nov 2015 21:41:50 +0000
A Trichome Institutetm publication by Max Montrose One dab, two dab, three dab-four, take another dab, and you’ll need some more. Is dabbing the crack-cocaine of ? Or is it the next revolution in smoking technology? There are so many questions and seemingly more confusing answers than most people can
Dabbing can be a very efficient and effective means of acquiring THC and other cannabinoids for medicinal use. While there are valid concerns about the safety of production and potency of concentrates, this consumption method holds promise.
A Trichome Institutetm publication by Max Montrose
One dab, two dab, three dab-four, take another dab, and you’ll need some more. Is dabbing the crack-cocaine of ? Or is it the next revolution in smoking technology? There are so many questions and seemingly more confusing answers than most people can make sense of. Is dabbing addictive? Is it dangerous? What is the legal status? Where did it come from? How do you do it and is it safe? Can you test how safe it is and how does Colorado define safe residual solvents? Let’s start from the top and knock out the easy questions first.
What is a Dab or Dabbing?
To dab means to take a tiny amount of concentrated hash (upwards of 95% THC) on the end of a small thin rod called a dabber. People use a bong or bubbler contraption many people call an oilrig. Oil for what you’re smoking, and rig stands for whatever smoking set up you build into a bong to dab with. A user takes the hash concentrate hanging on the tip of the dab rod and presses the small sticky hash ball to a hot metal plate, called a puddle swing, or other hot surface.
There are a variety of tools to heat and dab off of, including dome ‘n nail, dome-less nail, quarts, titanium, ceramic-dish, etc. Any of these tools are simply heated with a powerful torch or electricity. The heated attachment permits the dab to incinerate as it is pressed together and the smoke is sucked through bubbling bong water.
I like glass and ceramic attachments over titanium. Something about heating metal till it glows red-hot and then pressing another metal tool to the heat seems like you have to be smoking micro-doses of titanium. I imagine inhaling titanium off gasses due to the softness of the red hot metal in that violent state becoming evaporative. Especially if dabbing off of the metal is consistent over time. Quartz crystal, glass and ceramics seem to be safer, but more science needs to be done to confirm if this theory is true or not.
The art of the dab truly became popular in the later part of 2009 in Colorado. Since then it has taken many stoners to the next level–and quick. I am pretty sure dabbing originated in California. Before 2009 and the days of the dispensary, dabbing was very rare because almost no one knew how to make the wax to dab with. Those who understood how to make at home concentrates were a small underground community that pioneered Wax and Shatter hash. Those backyard chemists with PHD’s in reading stoner blogs never had the technology or skill to make hash that was safe for consumption.
The hash you dab with can be a variety of cannabis extracts that have a range of colors and viscosity.
Before CO HB-10-1284 (cannabis regulation) was enacted, anyone could sell their homemade products to the dispensaries. Because making wax was such a rare art, it was not uncommon to see single grams sold retail for $75-$90 in 2009. By around 2011 most everyone with a license in the state not only became aware of dabs, but they started to share this new technology with their friends. Dabbing paraphernalia hit the head shop market in one big wave and it seemed by 2012 the whole state was dabbing whether they had a license or not. Out of state college kids went home and told their friends what was happening in Colorado; the rest of the country slowly became more aware of dabbing.
Today in Colorado 2015, grams of wax or shatter can be sold from anywhere between $15-$60 in a dispensary depending on quality and type. A friend told me he discovered in Florida, grams of wax are around $80-$90 and is not only more expensive than cocaine, but also more sought after. Dabbing is becoming popular at exponential rates, yet most dab heads don’t have a clue what they are smoking.
The hash you dab with can be a variety of cannabis extracts that have a range of colors and viscosity. A few years ago we all used to call it earwax, because the extract is yellow and the same consistency as typical earwax. Wax, shatter, live resin, etc. are extracted with Butane, Hexane, Propane, CO2 and other liquid/gas chemicals. When a particular solvent or a mixture of them is pressurized through the cannabis leaf trim plugged in a chamber, it obliterates the trichomes exposing the fatty lipids, waxes, and cannabinoids. This mixture is pressed out as an oil that is purged and cured into a concentrated consistency.
So is dabbing safe?
The extraction technologies are getting better and better each day. We are just now getting to a point where I believe BHO (butane hash oil) and other solvent extractions are becoming less harmful. But wax and dabbing back in the day was horrific and it’s still this way with the black market in and out of Colorado today. Yes dabbing can be safer today if you know how to do it right.
Before I get into safe dabbing I want to describe to you how horrific most dab extractions and dabs use to be in the shops, and still are on the streets. Extracting the trichomes was most commonly done through copper pipes instead of glass or full loop mettle chambers as it is today.
I don’t know if the solvent strips the insides of the copper or PVC pipe into the wax, but I can imagine it does. Some people say Butane isn’t bad for you because you can often find it in food ingredients. I don’t know if anyone has ever done a study on consuming small PPM’s of butane vs. directly smoking massive quantities of butane. St. George University of London has a study about people who directly use and abuse butane as a drug, which is much different from smoking residuals of butane in hash. I can imagine there may be similarities in smoking butane, studies have shown, with sucking it into the mouth directly. I have read that inhaling butane can cause drowsiness, narcosis, euphoria, cardiac arrhythmia, asphyxia, temporary memory loss and fluctuations in blood pressure, and can result in death from asphyxiation and ventricular fibrillation. So I would much rather not smoke BHO (butane hash oil) when I have other options.
The Saint George study, called Trends in Death Associated With Abuse of Volatile Substances 1971 – 20041, found thatgas fuels continue to be associated with the majority of deaths. In 2004, butane from all sources, including aerosol propellants, accounted for 79% of VSA deaths (37 of the 47 deaths). Since 1971, butane gas lighter fuel has been associated with 83% of fatal abuses of gas fuel (38% of all substances fatally abused)
Again I want to emphasize that the St. George study is vastly different from smoking butane in hash, but also that no one has studied these effects and the trend is fairly new. It never ceases to amaze me how many people are unaware that simple heat purging in a Pyrex pan on the stove doesn’t really cook out all the residual butane matter. Not only that, but drug dealer stoners use cheap butane that is less pure and less refined which means the chemical components of the butane have a stronger presence in the hash. The hash smells like a lighter being held under your nose with the gas leaking out.
Therefore the hash is extracted in an unsafe chamber with unsafe chemicals that are then not properly heat(ed) and vacuum purged out for consumption. Simply making wax at home creates a scene more similar to crack and meth than ganja. An at-home wax making scene includes a kitchen with pipes and filters, scattered amongst cans of gasses and chemicals, surrounded by blow torches, Pyrex pans and cooking plates, vacuum chambers with tubes connected to vacuum sealers, bags of trim, and an oil rig on the counter to boot. This is not weed by any means; this is the crack of cannabis today. Yet there are more reasons to keep concentrates legal than not.
It’s not just the black market that makes dirty wax. When I did a presentation for the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on dabbing; I asked a local test lab to provide me with some data on PPM’s of residual gases they found in concentrate products (see acceptable limits per gram chart below). Some were actually impressively clean, where as others are terrifying. The last batch tested had a total combined content of 7399 PPM of Isopropane, Iso-pentane, N-pentane, Isobutane, and N-butane2!
Black-market hash makers often make it on the local news for blowing themselves and their house up by making this pipe-bomb style hash in their house. (They are) not aware that one spark from static electricity or lighting a cigarette will blow up the butane pressured copper pipe-bomb in their hands. This is a big explosion that not only blows the glass out of the windows, but it splinters copper shrapnel, freezing solvent and sticky wax oil all over the individuals who didn’t do this extraction outside. If your caught doing this with children in the house you can be charged with manufacturing narcotics, possession, intent to distribute, explosive manufacturing, and child endangerment. And yes it is illegal in Colorado to make these types of cannabis extracts at home.
Yes, if you do it correctly and here is the method. The most key element to a safe dab is safe hash. There is an at home way to test if your dabs are safer than not: put 1 dab on the end of paper clip held over a paper towel, and simply light it on fire. If the dab has tons of residual gas in it, it will sparkle like the 4th of July.
If the wax is not flammable, and doesn’t spark what so ever and just melts onto the paper towel, it is cleaner than not. Currently some companies have moved away from Butane and onto CO2 gas extractions and it makes sense this is a cleaner method. I am also aware of companies out there who have secret technology for a water-based extraction and not a gas extraction whatsoever.
One thing I noticed from dabbing solvent-less wax is that it’s strong, but not painfully mind blowing like its gas extracted cousins. I believe this is true because you’re getting the effect purely from the THC and not the residual gas. Shatter is a more pure form of wax that is vacuumed and heat purged in scientific ovens and usually has a lot less residual ppm’s of gas in it. After you have assurance that the hash you’re smoking is safe, then you need to smoke it in a safe way. This is easy to do if your oil rig is 100% glass and not metal. Instead of a puddle swing use a quartz crystal nail. Quartz is the most tempered glass on earth, you can heat it red hot and drop it in freezing water and it won’t shatter! Your dabbing tool should also be glass, and there for I’d say it’s safe to say glass on glass with chemical free hash will not be a hazard to your health. That’s how I dab…
Acceptable Consumption in Colorado
As time goes on, the companies that do use gas extractions are finding ways to keep the residual ppms at an extremely low point and therefore it might be the case that professional grade, lab-tested hash may not be that much of a risk to your health. I truly don’t know how, but the state of Colorado has come up with what they deem “acceptable consumption” for residual PPM’s and you can find it in R 712, E 2, 3, 4 – Retail Testing Facility: Mandatory Sampling and Testing Program “law”: Permissible Levels of Contaminants.
“If Retail , Retail Concentrate or Retail Product is found to have a contaminant in levels exceeding those established as permissible under this rule, then it shall be considered to have failed contaminant testing. Notwithstanding the permissible levels established in this rule, the Division reserves the right to determine, upon good cause and reasonable grounds, that a particular Test Batch presents a risk to the public health or safety and therefore shall be considered to have failed a contaminant test.”
Residual Solvents and Metals (outside of Colorado, please refer to your local governing authority)
Acceptable Limits Per Gram
Product to be Tested
< 800 Parts Per Million (PPM)
< 500 Parts Per Million (PPM)
< 1 Parts Per Million (PPM)
< 1 Parts Per Million (PPM)
< 10 Parts Per Million (PPM)
Total Xylenes (m,p, o-xylenes)**
< 1 Parts Per Million (PPM)
Any solvent not permitted for use pursuant to Rule R 605.
** Note: These solvents are not approved for use. Due to their possible presence in the solvents approved for use per Rule R 605, limits have been listed here accordingly.
Acceptable Limits Per Gram
Product to be Tested
Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury)
Lead – Max Limit: < 10 ppm Arsenic – Max Limit: < 10 ppm Cadmium – Max Limit: <4.1 ppm Mercury – Max Limit: <2.0 ppm
Flower; Water-, Food-, and Solvent-Based Concentrates; and Retail Products
If testing identifies the use of a banned Pesticide or the improper application of a permitted Pesticide, then that Test Batch shall be considered to have failed contaminant testing.
If Test Batch is found to contain levels of any chemical that could be toxic if consumed, then the Division may determine that the Test Batch has failed contaminant testing.
If Test Batch is found to contain levels of any microbial that could be toxic if consumed, then the Division may determine that the Test Batch has failed contaminant testing.
Molds, Mildew, and Filth
If a Test Batch is found to contain levels of any mold, mildew, or filth that could be toxic if consumed, then that Test Batch shall be considered to have failed contaminant testing.
The truth about wax, shatter and dabbing is (because) you’re smoking a very potent amount of THC (even though its small) this will bring your tolerance up very quickly. So much so that most dab heads find it frustrating to smoke anything besides dabs; simply smoking weed doesn’t do the trick anymore. is not addictive, but dabs have brought to a whole new level, and I do know people who you could consider addicted to taking dabs. Then again they might be addicted to the effect they get from the dab outside of the THC if they are smoking the dirty stuff. I’ve dabbed super dirty dabs myself, and the high is nothing similar to that of cannabis. 0.00 ppm concentrates do not produce the (mind blowing) effects that dirty hash does.
Either way, because I would like to preserve my cannabis tolerance as much as possible, I take a dab only when I need to. I wake up at 2 am every morning due to my Psychomotor Agitation and taking a sleeping pill or smoking bowl after bowl that late, doesn’t knock me back to sleep half as quickly as just taking a dab. I smoke dabs medically only, with clean wax, on a glass on glass rig. I recommend my method to anyone who cares about their tolerance or overall health.
In conclusion I don’t mean to scare anyone. I just want to make people aware of the facts and the unknowns.
Concentrates should not become illegal for three very good reasons
First, some people who have Multiple Sclerosis, or who may be having an epileptic seizure don’t have time or a steady hand to smoke a bowl for 10 minutes in dire need. It’s incredible how much medicine can enter your system instantly by dabbing and some people truly need this medically.
The second reason is personal recreational preference. It would really be disappointing if all alcohol was low ABV beer, and scotch, whisky and tequila were made illegal. Some people like to drink the heavier stuff the same way some people like to take dabs. Freedom is an important part of our culture; keep concentrates legal.
The third and most crucial reason is that dabbing has already hit the mainstream market and has reached critical mass. Make it illegal now and you will see a tremendous surge in the homemade crack-wax that is a hazard to health. People are blowing themselves and their homes up frequently as it is. Make the product illegal and the danger to society will surge. If you keep safe, regulated, and standard product available, people won’t have to result to bootlegging crack hash and exploding homes.
https://cannabishealth.com/to-dab-or-not-to-dab/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/support---for-vets-with-ptsd/ https://cannabishealth.com/support---for-vets-with-ptsd/#respond Wed, 11 Nov 2015 15:55:22 +0000
The featured image is courtesy of GrowforVets.org, a cause Cannabis Health supports. As we pay tribute to the soldiers who gave the ultimate sacrifice for our country, I can’t think of a better way to honor them than by helping those who return from war but continue to battle the demons of
Let’s honor those who died serving our country by working to improve the lives of those who return from war still fighting battles.
The featured image is courtesy of GrowforVets.org, a cause Cannabis Health supports.
As we pay tribute to the soldiers who gave the ultimate sacrifice for our country, I can’t think of a better way to honor them than by helping those who return from war but continue to battle the demons of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD has been called a crisis for the military, one of the leading causes of a reported 22 suicides per day, a number that is likely understated because it excludes states like California and Texas. The military is well aware of the disease, as the Administration funds the National Center for PTSD, but there is no mention whatsoever of one treatment that has helped many deal with PTSD: Cannabis.
One doesn’t have to look far to find anecdotal evidence that cannabis can help alleviate the symptoms of PTSD, which can be very difficult to treat. William Martin, who heads the Drug Policy program at Rice University’s Baker Institute, shared several examples in a highly informative piece in Texas Monthly a year ago. He has interviewed hundreds of as part of his research, and I was fortunate to hear first-hand from some of them at a meeting sponsored by Texas NORML and moderated by Professor Martin in Austin last year. Leonard Pitts, Jr. recently told the story of Jared Hunter, who won a court battle to avoid a criminal sentence. Not everyone is as fortunate, and many have lost access to V.A. benefits due to their use of cannabis. In addition to PTSD, a large number of suffer from chronic pain, with symptoms which may be treated more safely with cannabis than with highly addictive opioids.
Our who happen to live in states without programs can’t legally access cannabis. Even in states where programs exist, the official policy of the Administration is that its doctors can’t even discuss cannabis with their patients. Our neighbors to the North are much more progressive on this issue. In Canada, which has a federal program, can receive up to 10 grams per day, paid in full by the Affairs Canada. I am inspired by the works of Colorado-based Grow4Vets, which provides with the knowledge and resources necessary to obtain or grow their own for treatment of their conditions.
We need to study to see how it can best help with PTSD or chronic pain, but the fact that cannabis is a Schedule 1 drug (dangerous but no value) , a DEA definition that is ludicrous in my view, stymies these efforts. Professor Sue Sisley has overcome many obstacles, including finding new sponsors, but her PTSD study continues to be held up by the government, which is the monopoly provider of cannabis used in research. Critical legislation, HR 667: The Equal Access Act, has been reintroduced by Representative Earl Blumenauer. The CARERS Act, a bipartisan bill introduced earlier this year in the Senate and then the House, also addresses the research issue. The Senate Appropriations Committee recently moved forward legislation with an amendment that would allow VA doctors to discuss with their patients after a similar measure failed narrowly in the House. The vast majority of Americans favor , and, hopefully, our legislators will not keep standing in the way, especially for our .
I am for full legalization of cannabis, including unrestricted rights for individuals to grow and consume responsibly as well as for regulated commercial production. Even if you don’t embrace my views, hopefully you will take the time to learn more about how cannabis may help treat PTSD. Let’s honor those who died serving our country by working to improve the lives of those who return from war still fighting battles. Please let your Senators and Representative know that you support research of for PTSD and believe that it should be alright for and doctors to discuss it as a treatment option in states that permit .
https://cannabishealth.com/support---for-vets-with-ptsd/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/does-use-of-cbd-hemp-oil-result-in-a-positive-drug-test-for-thc-or-cannabis/ https://cannabishealth.com/does-use-of-cbd-hemp-oil-result-in-a-positive-drug-test-for-thc-or-cannabis/#respond Wed, 04 Nov 2015 18:13:58 +0000
Whether you agree with it in principle or not, testing for illicit drug use is a reality for many workers in the United States. Drug testing is mandatory for federal employees, and although it isn’t required in the private sector, more employers are implementing some kind(s) of drug screening. When
A consumer who uses a high-quality, scientifically vetted hemp-based product at the standard serving size is highly unlikely to test positive for THC
Whether you agree with it in principle or not, testing for illicit drug use is a reality for many workers in the United States. Drug testing is mandatory for federal employees, and although it isn’t required in the private sector, more employers are implementing some kind(s) of drug screening.
When drug testing is mandated, employers almost always follow the SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) guidelines because it puts them on solid legal ground. Typically, there is an overlap between testing guidelines and accepted cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites in confirmatory testing and screening.
Keep in mind that most of the high-quality, reliable CBD-rich hemp oil products contain much less THC than cannabis.
Because THC is widely recognized as being responsible for cannabis’ psychoactivity and euphoria, a routine urine drug screen for cannabis use consists of an immunoassay with antibodies that are made to detect it, and its main metabolite, 11-nor-delta9-caboxy-THC (THC-COOH). SAMHSA has set the cutoff level for a positive urine screen in the immunoassay at 50 ng/mL. When the immunoassay screen is positive at the > 50 ng/mL level, a confirmatory GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) test is performed to verify the positive urine screen. The confirmatory GC/MS has a cutoff level of 15 ng/mL and is specific only to the 11-nor-THC-COOH metabolite.
Fortunately, the urine drug screen for THC-COOH is known to have very little cross-reactivity to other cannabinoids that are not psychoactive, such as CBD (cannabidiol), CBG (cannabigerol), CBN (cannabinol), and others. This is good news for “normal” consumers of CBD/hemp oil.
That said, individuals using unusually large doses of a cannabinoid-rich hemp oil product (above 1000-2000 mg of hemp oil daily) could theoretically test positive during the initial urinary screen. Although very rare, the urine screen in these cases would likely represent a “false positive” due to other non-THC metabolites or compounds, which may cross-react with the immunoassay. When this is the case, the confirmatory GC/MS test would be negative, since CBD and other cannabinoids will not be detected by the more accurate (and specific) GC/MS screen.
Keep in mind that most of the high-quality, reliable CBD-rich hemp oil products contain much less THC than cannabis. For example, hemp contains anywhere from 1/10th to 1/300th of the THC concentration found in cannabis. An individual consuming 1000-2000 mg per day of hemp oil would thus consume approximately 3-6 mg of THC. This exceedingly high dose may result in detection of positive urine screen in up to 11% to 23% of assays.
On the other hand, there is some data demonstrating that at daily doses of 0.5mg of THC from 3-5 servings of most commercial CBD-rich hemp oil products, the positive urine screen rate is < 0.2%. Again, most servings of typical high-quality, high-purity CBD-based hemp oil products contain well below 0.1mg of THC and therefore have over 400-600 times less THC than cannabis products.
What does all this mean? Put simply, a consumer who uses a high-quality, scientifically vetted hemp-based product at the standard serving size is highly unlikely to test positive for THC and/or THC-COOH. However, it’s important to be cognizant that extremely high doses may result in a positive urine screen (that would be subsequently shown to be false via GC/MS). Ultimately, consumers need to be fully informed of the specific regulations posed by their employers and adjust their consumption of cannabinoid products accordingly.
Most research suggests that for infrequent or ‘non-daily’ users of cannabis, a typical high-dose cannabis cigarette (containing about 40mg to 50mg of THC) would result in a positive THC metabolite screen for up to 2 days at this cutoff level. However, for routine and regular users of cannabis, this same screen could be positive for weeks, but this depends on many factors including, but not limited to:
how much and how often cannabis is used
the metabolism of individual being tested
the route of administration
other factors such as medications used, liver or kidney disease, etc.
This article is based on SAMHSA standards in the United States. Other organizations’ drug testing standards may be different, the disclosures presented in this article may vary.
Gustafson RA, Kim I, Stout PR, Klette KL, George MP, Moolchan ET, Levine B, Huestis MA. Urinary pharmacokinetics of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol after controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):160-7
Gustafson RA, Levine B, Stout PR, Klette KL, George MP, Moolchan ET, Huestis MA. Urinary cannabinoid detection times after controlled oral administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol to humans. Clin Chem. 2003 Jul; 49(7):1114-24.
Kemp PM, Abukhalaf IK, Manno JE, Manno BR, Alford DD, Abusada GA. Cannabinoids in humans. I. Analysis of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and six metabolites in plasma and urine using GC-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 1995 Sep; 19(5):285-91.
Huestis MA, Mitchell JM, Cone EJ. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans after single smoked doses of . J Anal Toxicol. 1996 Oct;20(6):441-52.
Wall ME, Perez-Reyes M. J Clin Pharmacol. The metabolism of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in man. 1981 Aug-Sep; 21(8-9 Suppl):178S-189S.
Disclaimer: The information provided in this column is intended for educational and informational purposes only. Cannavest is not engaged in rendering legal or advice, and any information provided is not a substitute for professional legal or opinion. If you have any concern about testing positive for THC when using CBD-containing hemp oil, please seek advice from your health care professional.
https://cannabishealth.com/does-use-of-cbd-hemp-oil-result-in-a-positive-drug-test-for-thc-or-cannabis/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/can-cannabinoids-positively-impact-your-bodys-orthopedic-and-musculoskeletal-health/ https://cannabishealth.com/can-cannabinoids-positively-impact-your-bodys-orthopedic-and-musculoskeletal-health/#respond Mon, 26 Oct 2015 15:44:33 +0000
Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopedic conditions are the second-most common reason for physician visits in the United States at a staggering annual cost of close to $1 trillion. Finding safe, cost-effective therapeutic options is quickly becoming a top priority for those concerned about health and productivity, from practitioners and patients to
There is emerging science paving the way for the application of cannabinoids such as CBD (cannabidiol) in the world of orthopedic joint, tendon, bone, and connective tissue health.
Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopedic conditions are the second-most common reason for physicianvisits in the United States at a staggering annual cost of close to $1 trillion. Finding safe, cost-effective therapeutic options is quickly becoming a top priority for those concerned about health and productivity, from practitioners and patients to government institutions.
Cannabinoid compounds and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have been making waves for optimizing health and restoring balance related to mood, anxiety, sleep, pain management, neuroprotection, and even metabolic health. However, there is emerging science paving the way for the application of cannabinoids such as CBD (cannabidiol) in the world of orthopedic joint, tendon, bone, and connective tissue health.
We’re Not Quite at Adamantium Levels of Bone Strength, But We’re Getting There
A recent study published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal earlier this year by Kogan et al. demonstrated for the first time that phytocannabinoids can help to regulate the biomechanical properties and structure of bone. Interestingly, it had previously been shown that a number of endocannabionoids (produced within the body) acted as ligands, or hormone-like compounds (“keys”), for important receptors (“locks”) that control how the bone repairs and remodels its mineral and protein content.
In this study by Kogan, CBD led to improvements in healing of a rat femoral fracture model and demonstrated increased load-bearing mechanical properties. In other words, the rat leg fractures of the CBD-supplemented group healed faster and more completely with a stronger callus at the injury site than the control group that received non-cannabis treatment.
What Happens When Your Body’s Inflammatory Response is Unregulated?
The inflammatory response is known to be critical for healthy tissue integrity of the joints, tendons, ligaments, and bones. However, if left uncontrolled or unregulated, the chronic inflammatory response can keep injuries in the initial aggressive stage to clear out damaged tissues in a vicious, constant cycle. If the immune system can’t appropriately progress to the stages of resolution, tissue regeneration, remodeling, and healing, the patient can feel like he or she is on a continuous hamster wheel of pain, heat, swelling, and dysfunction.
Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects via activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2, PPARs, GP18, and TRPV1) by both endocannabinoids as well as phytocannabinoids such as CBD. Recently, activation of these receptors has been linked to a powerful family of lipids known as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs). These are the body’s natural “shut-off” system for inflammation that signals a major shift in the behavior and type of white blood cells to calm down and begin repairing and remodeling the injured site. That site may vary from an area of infection to any joint, tendon, connective tissue, or orthopedic injury that needs to be restored and fully healed.
We expect to see an increase of new clinical research developing in the area of applying cannabinoid science to orthopedics and musculoskeletal health in the near future. Not only can this type of therapy be more cost-effective for both patients and practitioners, it showcases the diversity of benefits cannabinoids can pose on the human body.
Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, et al. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Mar 19.
Burstein SH. The cannabinoid acids, analogs and endogenous counterparts.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2014 May 15;22(10):2830-43.
O’Sullivan Saoirse Elizabeth. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors: an update and review of the physiological relevance. WIREs Membr Transp Signal 2013, 2: 17-25.
Gui H, Tong Q, Qu W, Mao CM, Dai SM. The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic implications in rheumatoid arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 May;26(1):86-91.
https://cannabishealth.com/can-cannabinoids-positively-impact-your-bodys-orthopedic-and-musculoskeletal-health/feed/ 0 https://cannabishealth.com/cnns-report--study-findings-are-another-form-of-reefer-madness/ https://cannabishealth.com/cnns-report--study-findings-are-another-form-of-reefer-madness/#respond Sun, 25 Oct 2015 16:52:10 +0000
Before I take you on a short journey a few caveats should be noted. I do not hold a PhD, I do call myself a scientist nor am I a statistician. However, I am very much a researcher both in my curiosity to explore and discover relationships in science.
“ Study: Number of Americans toking up doubles in 10 years” is misleading, perhaps intentionally –
Before I take you on a short journey a few caveats should be noted. I do not hold a PhD, I do call myself a scientist nor am I a statistician. However, I am very much a researcher both in my curiosity to explore and discover relationships in science. When possible, I share in some way with others (educate & inform). That said, the key purpose of this article is to underscore the need for everyone to look beyond the media and do not assume findings are a fact because a leading news company shares the story.
Details in science mean everything. Let me be clear, this is not about the scientists and journal as it appears they have precisely articulated their findings for what appear to be accurate. However, this information is not conveyed as they have reported. Let’s begin…
Before moving on to this topic in more detail, let’s first take a look at this very simple unassuming title of the story.
The use of ‘’ immediately takes the discussion into a direction not that of a scientific perspective but one that is associated with controversy and misperception by any not coming from a perspective of truly understanding the scientific and implications.
The use of the term ‘toking’, again takes us further down the path of a perception of clip from Dazed and Confused (a great throwback for it’s time). Nonetheless the connotation is hardly a positive image.
What is most meaningful and the reason for this short commentary is the last part of the title ‘doubles in 10 years’. Keep this in mind as I present additional information for you to decide and interpret this headline.
The use of ‘’ immediately takes the discussion into a direction not that of a scientific perspective but one that is associated with controversy and misperception…
Now, on to the publication in more detail. I’m not going to get into the statistics and specific findings because that is not my purpose here. As mentioned this is intended to be an exercise in exploration.
In the recent JAMA Psychiatry publication, two very simple points will illustrate the importance of digging beyond the surface.
“MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Past-year use and DSM-IV use disorder (abuse or dependence).” (pg. 1)
“CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The prevalence of use more than doubled between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, and there was a large increase in use disorders during that time. While not all users experience problems, nearly 3 of 10 users manifested a use disorder in 2012-2013. Because the risk for use disorder did not increase among users, the increase in prevalence of use disorder is owing to an increase in prevalence of users in the US adult population.” (pg. 1)
Regardless of the findings, let’s compare this to the title. Does this intent of the paper in any way reflect the title of the CNN story?
Again, my purpose is not to dig into the details of the paper, because their findings and conclusions are not what are in question here.
“The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism…” (pg 2)
Underscoring the value of independent scientific inquiry into cannabis. Again, it is not the intent to question the scientists or the integrity of the journal, but what is reasonable to question is to what extent the community of readers can believe the results are in fact independent of the perspectives of the funding agency.
“The prevalence of users remained stable…” (pg 2)
The findings of this study contrast with National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data suggesting that the prevalence of use increased only 12% from 2002 to 2012, and that the prevalence of use disorders did not increase (1.6% in 2002 (81) and 1.5% in 2012 (70)). The explanation of these different findings is not clear.” (pg 5)
The 10 year national trends on lifetime reported use of cannabis do not reflect statistically significant increases, and monthly and daily use has not shown 5-year trends to support as found by the NSDUH & MTF survey data (2014). Further, lifetime prevalence of cannabis showed a statistically significant DECLINE in 10 years.
Further, lifetime prevalence of cannabis showed a statistically significant DECLINE in 10 years.
In conclusion, the NSDUH is a 184 page document and the paper published by JAMA Psychiatry is more detailed than can be fully covered here. But, it is very important and a responsibility of all scientists, providers, and those in the cannabis industry that are committed to patient health to look beyond the highlights and headlines. The scientific and investigation of cannabis requires serious and honest dialogue to understand the best practices and how research findings can translate to improved patient outcomes and quality of life.
Hasin DS, Saha TD, Kerridge BT, et al. Prevalence of Use Disorders in the United States Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online October 21, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1858.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014.